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The Criterion Between The Allies Off the Merciful & The Allies Off the Devil :- (AwliyaUr Rahman Awliya Ushaitan :-Shaykhul Islam Ibne Taymiyyah[rah])

CHAPTER 1

 

 

               IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL

 AL-FURQAN

 

 

 CHAPTER 1

 


 

All praise is to Allah. We seek His aid, ask Him for guidance, and ask His forgiveness. We

seek refuge in Allah from the evil which is in ourselves, and the wicked of our actions.

Whoever Allah guides none can send astray, and whoever Allah sends astray, none can

guide. We testify that there is no deity except Allah, alone and with no partner. And, we

testify that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. He sent him with the guidance and the

way of truth so that He (i.e. Allah) might make it predominate over all other ways, and

Allah is sufficient as a witness. He sent him preceding the Hour (qiyama), as a bringer of

good tidings, a warner, and a caller to Allah by His permission, and as a beacon light. He

(Allah) guided with it those who had been lost, and gave sight to those who had been

blind, gave uprightness and order to those who had been following unbridled impulse, He

opened unseeing eyes, deaf ears, and sealed hearts. With it, He established the criterion

for distinguishing truth from falsehood, guidance from going astray, uprightness from

following of whims, the believers from the disbelievers, the joyous people of paradise and

the miserable people of the fire, and the allies of Allah from His enemies. Whoever the

Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) has attested to as being among the allies of Allah,

are the awliyaa' (friends or allies) of the Merciful, and whoever the Prophet has described

as being among the enemies of Allah, are indeed among the enemies of Allah, and are

among the awliyaa' of the shaitaan (devil).

Allah has explained in His Book, and in the Sunnah of His Prophet that He has awliyaa'

among the people and that shaitaan also has his awliyaa', and He has differentiated

between these two types of awliyaa'. Allah said:

“Indeed, there is no fear upon the awliyaa' of Allah, nor shall they grieve,

those who believe and are ever pious in their actions. To them are glad

tidings in this life and in the hereafter. There is no changing the words of

Allah. That, then, is the great success.” (Qur'an Yunus 10:62-64)

“Allah is the protector (ally) of those who believe, He takes them out of the

darknesses into the light. As for the disbelievers, their allies are the taaghoot

who take them out of the light and into the darknesses. Those are the people

of the fire, and they will be in it forever.” (Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:257)

The Criterion Between Allies of the Merciful & The Allies of the Devil - 2

Translated by Salim Abdallah ibn Morgan

“O, you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They

are allies of each other. Whoever among you puts his allegiance with them, is

certainly one of them. Allah does not guide a people who oppress. And so,

you see those in whose heart is sickness rushing to (make alliances with)

them, saying: "We fear being caught in some unfortunate turn of events".

Perhaps Allah will bring victory, or something from Him, such that they come

to regret that which they hid within themselves. And the believers (will) say:

"Are these the ones who swore their strongest oaths that they were with

you?" Their works have been invalidated, and they have ended up in complete

loss. O, you who believe, whosoever among you turns back from his way

(Islam) Allah will surely bring another people whom He loves and who love

Him. (They will be) humble and merciful with the believers, strong and firm

with the disbelievers; they fight in the path of Allah, and do not fear the

blame of those who blame. This is the grace of Allah, and He gives it to whom

He wishes, and Allah is encompassing, knowing of all things. Verily, your

(true) ally is Allah, His Prophet, and those who believe; those who establish

the prayer, pay the zakat, and bow in prayer. Whoever puts his allegiance

with Allah, His Prophet, and those who believe, the party of Allah are surely

the victorious ones.” Qur'an 5:51-56)

“Thereupon the only true alliance is with Allah, the Truth, that is the best in

reward, and the best in final results.” Qur'an 18:44

The allies of the devil have also been mentioned in the Qur'an :

“And so, when you read the Qur'an, seek refuge in Allah from the accursed

shaitaan. He has no power over those who believe and depend on their Lord.

His power is only over those who give their allegiance to him and who

(succumb to his urgings and) associate (partners) with Allah.” Qur'an 16:98-

100

“Those who believe fight in the path of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight

in the path of taaghoot, so fight the allies of shaitaan, verily, the plot of

Shaitaan is weak (when confronted with true faith).” Qur'an 4:76

“And when we said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam," they bowed down all

except for Iblis. He was one of the jinn, and he rebelled against the order of

his Lord. And so, do you then take him and his descendants as allies instead

of me, though they are your avowed enemies? What an evil substitute for the

oppressors!” Qur'an al-Kahf 18:50

The Criterion Between Allies of the Merciful & The Allies of the Devil - 3

Translated by Salim Abdallah ibn Morgan

“And whoever takes the devil as an ally instead of Allah, has brought about a

very clear loss.” Qur'an an-Nisaa 4:119

“Those to whom the people said: "The people are gathering against you, so

fear them," were only increased (by that) in faith, and they said: "Allah is

sufficient for us, and He is the best of guardians." So, they returned with

bounty from Allah and His grace. No harm touched them. They sought only

Allah's pleasure, and Allah's grace is great. That is only shaitaan, he gives his

allies the ability to strike fear into your hearts, so do not fear them, and fear

me if you truly are believers.” Qur'an al-`Imran 3:173-175

“We have made the devils allies of those who do not believe; those who

commit outrages and then say: "We found our predecessors on this

(tradition)" ... Surely, they have taken the devils as allies instead of Allah,

and they think that they are on the guidance.” Qur'an al-A`raf 7:27-28 & 30

“And, verily, the devils pass suggestions to their allies, so that they might

dispute with you.” Qur'an al-An`aam 6:121

Allah narrates the statement of the prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him):

“O, my father, I fear that you may be touched by a punishment from the

Merciful, and be an ally of the devil.” Qur'an Maryam 19:45

“O, you who believe, do not take my enemy and your enemy as allies toward

whom you (secretly) cast your love.” Qur'an 60:1

“Our Lord, do not make us a temptation for the rejecters of faith, and forgive

us, you are the mighty, the wise.” Qur'an 60:5

“O, you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They
are allies of each other. Whoever among you puts his allegiance with them, is
certainly one of them. Allah does not guide a people who oppress. And so,
you see those in whose heart is sickness rushing to (make alliances with)
them, saying: "We fear being caught in some unfortunate turn of events".
Perhaps Allah will bring victory, or something from Him, such that they come
to regret that which they hid within themselves. And the believers (will) say:
"Are these the ones who swore their strongest oaths that they were with
you?" Their works have been invalidated, and they have ended up in complete
loss. O, you who believe, whosoever among you turns back from his way
(Islam) Allah will surely bring another people whom He loves and who love
Him. (They will be) humble and merciful with the believers, strong and firm
with the disbelievers; they fight in the path of Allah, and do not fear the
blame of those who blame. This is the grace of Allah, and He gives it to whom
He wishes, and Allah is encompassing, knowing of all things. Verily, your
(true) ally is Allah, His Prophet, and those who believe; those who establish
the prayer, pay the zakat, and bow in prayer. Whoever puts his allegiance
with Allah, His Prophet, and those who believe, the party of Allah are surely
the victorious ones.” Qur'an 5:51-56)
“Thereupon the only true alliance is with Allah, the Truth, that is the best in
reward, and the best in final results.” Qur'an 18:44
The allies of the devil have also been mentioned in the Qur'an :
“And so, when you read the Qur'an, seek refuge in Allah from the accursed
shaitaan. He has no power over those who believe and depend on their Lord.
His power is only over those who give their allegiance to him and who
(succumb to his urgings and) associate (partners) with Allah.” Qur'an 16:98-
100
“Those who believe fight in the path of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight
in the path of taaghoot, so fight the allies of shaitaan, verily, the plot of
Shaitaan is weak (when confronted with true faith).” Qur'an 4:76
“And when we said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam," they bowed down all
except for Iblis. He was one of the jinn, and he rebelled against the order of
his Lord. And so, do you then take him and his descendants as allies instead
of me, though they are your avowed enemies? What an evil substitute for the
oppressors!” Qur'an al-Kahf 18:50

“And whoever takes the devil as an ally instead of Allah, has brought about a
very clear loss.” Qur'an an-Nisaa 4:119
“Those to whom the people said: "The people are gathering against you, so
fear them," were only increased (by that) in faith, and they said: "Allah is
sufficient for us, and He is the best of guardians." So, they returned with
bounty from Allah and His grace. No harm touched them. They sought only
Allah's pleasure, and Allah's grace is great. That is only shaitaan, he gives his
allies the ability to strike fear into your hearts, so do not fear them, and fear
me if you truly are believers.” Qur'an al-`Imran 3:173-175
“We have made the devils allies of those who do not believe; those who
commit outrages and then say: "We found our predecessors on this
(tradition)" ... Surely, they have taken the devils as allies instead of Allah,
and they think that they are on the guidance.” Qur'an al-A`raf 7:27-28 & 30
“And, verily, the devils pass suggestions to their allies, so that they might
dispute with you.” Qur'an al-An`aam 6:121
Allah narrates the statement of the prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him):
“O, my father, I fear that you may be touched by a punishment from the
Merciful, and be an ally of the devil.” Qur'an Maryam 19:45
“O, you who believe, do not take my enemy and your enemy as allies toward
whom you (secretly) cast your love.” Qur'an 60:1
“Our Lord, do not make us a temptation for the rejecters of faith, and forgive
us, you are the mighty, the wise.” Qur'an 60:5

 

CHAPTER 2--->


 

 

 

Once it is known that there are among the people allies (awliyaa') of the Merciful, and

allies of the devil, we must differentiate between this group and that, just as Allah and His

Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) differentiated between them. The allies of Allah are

the pious believers, as Allah said:

“Surely, there is no fear upon the allies of Allah, nor shall they grieve: those

who believe and are pious (have taqwa).” Qur'an 10:62-63

Abu Huraira narrates in the sahih hadith found in the collection of Al-Bukhari, that the

Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

"Allah ta'ala says: I have declared war on anyone who is an enemy of any of

my allies. There is nothing better with which my slave can come closer to me

than fulfilling all that I have made obligatory upon him. Then, my slave will

continue to come closer to me be making extra efforts until I love him. When

I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he

sees, his hand with which he strikes, and his leg with which he walks. If he

asks me, I will give him, if he seeks refuge with me, I will give him refuge. I

have not hesitated in anything which I do as I hesitate in taking the soul of

my believing slave. He dislikes death, and I dislike annoying him, but he must

meet his death."

This is the most authenticated narration about the awliyaa' (allies) of Allah, in it, the

Prophet explains that to be enemies of the allies of Allah, is to enter into warfare against

Allah!

In another hadith, the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) says:

"I will take revenge for my allies as the revenge of a ferocious fighting lion."

i.e. He will extract revenge from those who oppose His allies as a fighting lion takes his

revenge. The reason for this is that the awliyaa' (allies) of Allah are those who believe in

Him, and give their full loyalty to Him. Thus, they love all that which Allah loves, hate what

He hates, are pleased with what pleases Him, despise what He despises, they enjoin that

which He enjoins, forbid that which He forbids, give to those whom Allah loves for them to

be given, and withhold from those whom Allah loves not to receive. The Prophet said, in a

hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhi and others:

"The most dependable handhold on faith is: love for the sake of Allah and

hatred for the sake of Allah."

And, in another hadith, narrated by Abu Daud, the Prophet said:

"Whoever loves for Allah, hates for Allah, gives for Allah, and withholds for

Allah, has sought the completion of his faith."

The word for the allies of Allah, awliyaa', singular: waliy, comes from the root wilaya.

Wilaya is the opposite of enmity ('adaawa). The basic meaning of wilaya is love and

closeness, while the basic meaning of 'adaawa is hatred and distance. It has also been said

that the waliy (of Allah) has been called this because of his consistency (muwaalaatihi -

from the same root) in obedience to Allah, but the first analysis is more correct. The waliy,

therefore, is one who is close. It is said this one yaliy (the verb from the same root) that

one i.e. is close to him. Another example is the statement of the Prophet:

"Give the assigned portions (i.e. of the inheritance) to their rightful owners,

then that which the assigned portions leave should be given to the nearest

(awlaa, the superlative from the same root we are discussing) male man."

i.e. to the man most closely related to the deceased. The redundance of the adjective

"male", and the word "man" is by way of emphasis that this ruling is for male relatives

only, and females are not included. Redundance is normal as a means of emphasis just as

in the hadith about zakat in which the Prophet used the phrase: "a nursing male son". "A

nursing son" fully describes a young male camel of a certain age range, and male is

redundant and only for emphasis.

Since the waliy of Allah is the one who agrees with and follows Allah in all that he loves

and accepts, hates and despises, and enjoins and forbids, it is clear why the enemy of

Allah's waliy has in fact put himself in a position of enmity with Allah ta'ala. Allah said:

“Do not take my enemy and your enemy as allies (awliyaa') toward whom

you (secretly) cast your love.” Qur'an 60:1

Thus, whoever bears enmity towards the allies of Allah, bears enmity towards Allah, and

whoever bears enmity towards Allah is at war with Allah. This is why the Prophet

(sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said in another version of the hadith about the allies of Allah:

"Whoever bears enmity towards an ally of mine has entered into warfare with

Me."

The best of Allah's allies are His prophets, and the best of His prophets are the messenger

prophets, and the best of the messengers are the five known as the five firmly intentioned

prophets (uluu ul-'azm): Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, 'Isa, and Muhammad, may the peace and

prayers of Allah be upon them all. Allah said:

“Allah has ordained for you by way of deen that with which he counselled

Nuh, that which has been revealed to you, and that with which He counselled

Ibrahim, Musa, and 'Isa: to establish your deen (way) and do not become

divided therein.” Qur'an 42:13

Revised to here...

“And when we took from the prophets their covenant, as we did from you,

from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and 'Isa the son of Maryam, we took from them a

mighty covenant. (This) so that the truthful may be rewarded for their

truthfulness, and He has prepared for the rejectors a painful punishment.”

Qur'an 33:7-8

The best of the firmly-intentioned prophets is the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu `alayhi

wa sallam), the seal of the prophets, the imam of the pious, the foremost among the sons

of Adam, the imam of the prophets when they gathered (on the night of israa'), and their

speaker when they came in delegations, the one of the praiseworthy position (Al-Maqaam

al-mahmood) for which he will be envied by people of the early and the late generations,

the possessor of the flag of praise (Al-hamd), the possessor of the pond to which believers

will flock (Al-hawdh which awaits Muhammad and his followers in paradise), the

Intercessor for the creation on the day of Qiyama, the owner of Al-waseela and Alfadheela,

the one with whom Allah sent the best of His books, and ordained the best laws

of His deen, and made his nation the best nation brought forth for the people. Allah

gathered together for Muhammad and for his followers all qualities of dignity and goodness

which were divided among the previous nations, never found all at once. They are the last

nation to be created, the first nation to be brought back, as the Prophet said in the sahih

hadith:

"We are the last ones, the first ones on the day of Qiyama. Even though they

were given the Book before us, and we were given it after them, this is their

day over which they have differed (he is referring to Friday), to which Allah

has guided us. The people then follow after us: tomorrow for the Jews, and

the day after tomorrow for the Christians."

"I am the first one who the earth will give up."

"I will come to the door of paradise and seek entry. The guard will say: "Who

are you?" When I say that I am Muhammad, he will say: "You are the one for

whom I was ordered to open to no one before you."

His good qualities (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and those of his followers are many. From

the moment he was made a Prophet, Allah made him the criterion between His allies and

His enemies: none are allies (awliyaa') of Allah except one who believes in Muhammad and

in that with which he was sent, and follows it openly and in secret. Whoever claims love of

Allah and alliance (wilaya) with Allah but does not follow the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa

sallam) is not one of the allies of Allah. No, whoever contradicts the Prophet is one of the

enemies of Allah, one of the allies (awliyaa') of the devil (shaitaan). Allah said:

“Say: If you truly love Allah, then follow me so that Allah may love you.”

Qur'an 3:31

Al-Hassan Al-Basry said about this verse:

"A group of people claimed to love Allah, and so He sent down this verse as a

test for them."

Allah has made clear in this verse that Allah loves whoever follows the Prophet, and

whoever claims the love of Allah, but does not follow the Prophet, is not one of the allies of

Allah, even though many people imagine themselves or others to be among the allies

(awliyaa') of Allah while they are in no way close to or in alliance with Allah. Examples are

the Jews and the Christians, who claim that they are allies of Allah, and that no one will

enter paradise except one who joins them, or, they even claim that they are the sons or

the beloved of Allah. Allah said:

“Then why would He punish you for your sins? No! You are nothing more than

people among those who He created.” Qur'an 5:18

“And they say: "None shall enter paradise unless they be a Jew or a Christian.

Those are their hopes. Say: Produce your proofs, if you speak the truth. No!

Whoever submits his face to Allah, and is a doer of good has his reward with

Allah; there will be no fear upon him, nor shall he grieve.” Qur'an 2:111-112

The associationist Arabs used to claim that they were the "people of Allah" because they

lived in Makka near the house of Allah. This was a source of pride and arrogance for them

over other people. Allah said:

“My verses used to be read to you, but you used to turn back on your heels.

Arrogant with it (Ibn Abbas said about this verse: "it" here is the Ka'aba

about which they used to say: "We are its people"), enjoying light talk into

the night, neglecting (their true obligations to) it.” Qur'an 23:66-67

“And when the disbelievers plotted against you, to keep you in bonds, kill

you, or expel you from your home; they scheme, and Allah schemes, and

Allah is the best of schemers. * When our verses are read to them they say:

"We have heard. If we wanted to, we could say things like this. This is

nothing but tales of the ancients. * And when they said: "O, Allah, if this is

the truth which comes from You, then send down on us a rain of stones from

the sky, or bring us a painful punishment." * Allah is not about to punish

them while you are among them, and He is not about to punish them while

they (i.e. some among them) seek His forgiveness. * Yet what plea do they

have that Allah should not punish them when they block people from the

sacred Masjid though they are not its guardians (awliyaa'). Its guardians can

only be the righteous, but most of them do not know.” Qur'an 8:30-34

Allah explains that the associationists are not his allies (awliyaa'), nor are they the

guardians (awliyaa') of His house - these are only the pious in belief and action.

It has been authenticated in the books of Muslim and Bukhari on the authority of 'Amr ibn

Al-'aas (May Allah be pleased with him) that he said:

"*I heard the Prophet say publicly, not in secret: "Verily, the family of soand-

so are not of my awliyaa' - referring to one group among his relatives -

(Note: The word awliyaa' in Arabic means in general those who are close,

beloved, or allied, and also means specifically, as we have seen those closely

related by blood, i.e. relatives) My allies (awliyaa') are none other than Allah

and the righteous believers."

This is the same meaning as in the verse:

“Verily Allah is his (i.e. the Prophet's) guardian (or protecting ally) and the

righteous of the believers.” Qur'an 66:4

The "righteous of the believers" are all those who are righteous of the believers, and they

are the believers who are pious (have taqwa), the allies of Allah. This category includes

Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, and all the people of the Oath known as bai'at-ul-Ridhwaan

who took the oath under the tree. They were fourteen hundred in number, and all of them

are in paradise, as is authenticated in the sahih hadith that the Prophet said:

"No one shall enter the fire among those who took the oath under the tree."

"My allies are the pious whoever they are, and wherever they are."

Some of the kuffar (disbelievers) claim to be allies (awliyaa') of Allah. They are not so,

rather, they are enemies of Allah. Also, some of the hypocrites, who put on an outward

display of Islam, acknowledging publicly the testimony of faith: that there is no deity other

than Allah, and that Muhammad is His Prophet and messenger, and that he was sent to all

of the people, no, to both humans and jinns, but they believe in their hearts things which

invalidate that. Examples of beliefs which invalidate the testimony of faith:

(1) One who does not truly believe that Muhammad is the messenger of

Allah, but believes that he was a great and respected ruler who, like other

great kings, led his people based on his own intellectual efforts and opinions.

(2) One who believes that Muhammad is a messenger of Allah, but not to the

entire race, e.g. to the illiterate Arabs only, and not to the people who were

given previous books. This is heard from many of the Jews and the Christians.

(3) One who believes that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah to the whole

creation generally, but that Allah has special allies (awliyaa') to whom he

was not sent, and who are not in need of his message, rather, they have a

way to Allah without need for the Prophet, as Al-Khidhr was with Musa in the

story found in Sura Al-Kahf.

(4) One who says that he can take what he needs directly from Allah and

benefit from it without the need for any intermediaries or prophets.

(5) One who believes that Muhammad was only sent with the "superficial"

laws which he accepts, but believes that there are other hidden truths with

which the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) was not sent, did not know,

or that he is able to know them better than the Prophet, or that he can come

to know them as the Prophet knew them, but not through the Prophet

(sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).

Some of these people even say that the people of the Suffa (a place in the Prophet's

masjid reserved for the Muslims who migrated to Madina, and had no house or other place

to stay) were not in need of the Prophet, and he was not sent to them. Some of them say

that Allah gave revelation to the people of the Suffa, showing them secretly that which was

revealed to the Prophet on the night of the ascension, so they are equal to the Prophet in

status. In their excessive ignorance, they did not even know that the ascension occurred

when the Prophet was still in Makka, as Allah said:

“Glory to the one who took His slave on a journey by night from the sacred

Masjid (which is in Makka!) to the farthest Masjid whose precincts we have

blessed.” Qur'an 17:1

and that the people of the Suffa did not exist until after the migration of the Prophet

(sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) to Madinah. The Suffa was an area in the northern parts of

the Prophet's Masjid in which stayed the newcomers who had neither family nor close

friends in Madinah with which they could stay. The believers used to migrate to the Prophet

in Madinah; if they had some place in which to stay, they went to it, and if this was not

easy for them, they stayed in the masjid until it was made easy for them to find another

place to stay.

The "people of the Suffa" were not a particular group of people who never left the Suffa. In

fact, they used to decrease in number sometimes, and increase other times. A man may

stay there for some time, and then move out to another location in Madinah. Those who

stayed in the Suffa represented all sectors of the people, they had no particular

characteristics of knowledge or religiosity. In fact among the people of the Suffa was one

who turned back from Islam, and was killed by the Prophet. In sahih Bukhari, there is a

story of a group of Arabs who came to Madinah during the time of the Prophet. They found

difficulty with the climate of Madinah, and their health degenerated. They asked the

Prophet to supply them with milk. He ordered them to go to where his camels were being

tended. They went there and drank of the milk and the urine of the camels. When they

regained their health, they killed the one tending the camels, stole the camels, and ran off

into the desert. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) sent out a party in pursuit, and

when they were captured, he ordered that their eyes by cauterized by heated nails, their

hands and feet were cut off without sealing the wounds, and they were left in a rocky area

of Madinah, asking for water but finding no one to give them.

In this hadith, as it is found in Sahih Bukhari, it is mentioned that they had been staying in

the Suffa. So, it was inhabited by people like this, and it was also inhabited by some of the

best of the Muslims such as Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqaas, he was the best of those who stayed in

the Suffa, then he moved elsewhere. Abu Huraira and others also stayed in the Suffa. The

scholar Abdul Rahman As-Salmi has collected a history of those who spent time in the

Suffa.

As for the Ansaar, none of them were of the people of the Suffa. Likewise, the greatest of

the migrators like Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Talha, Az-Zubair, Abdul Rahman ibn 'Auf,

Abi 'Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarraah, and others, none of them were ever of the people of the Suffa.

It has been narrated that a boy of Al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba stayed in the Suffa, and that the

Prophet said about him: "He is one of the seven." This hadith is a forgery and a lie in the

unanimous opinion of the scholars, even though it is found in the book by Abu Na'im called

"Hilyat-ul-awliyaa'. Furthermore, all of the hadith which have been narrated as words of

the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) about mysterious personages of a specific

number are all false hadith, none of them has been authenticated as being the words of

the Prophet. Examples of these fabrications are: that there are specific numbers of

awliyaa', abdaal (substitutes), nuqabaa' (sing. naqib), nujabaa' (sing. najib), awtaad

(literally: stakes), or aqtaab (sing. qutb, literally: poles), and that their number is four,

seven, twelve, forty, seventy, three hundred, three hundred and thirteen, or that there is

only one qutb, etc. None of this is authentic, it is all found in weak and fabricated hadith,

and the first generations of Muslims never uttered these words at all except for the word

abdaal.

There is a hadith narrated about the abdaal found in the collection of Imam Ahmad known

as the musnad which says that they are forty in number, and that they are in Shaam. It is

attributed to Ali (May Allah be pleased with him), but its chain is broken, thus it is not a

sound hadith. It is well known that Ali and those companions who were with him were

better than Mu'awiya, and those who were with him in Shaam (the area of Syria), so the

best of all people would not have been found in the camp of Mu'awiya and not in the camp

of Ali.

In a hadith found in Muslim and Bukhari, Abi Sa'eed narrates that the Prophet said:

"An element will shoot out of the deen at a time when the Muslims are

divided. They will be killed by the closer of the two groups to the truth."

This element which left Islam are the khawaarij (sometimes referred to in English as the

"kharijites" who left the fold of Islam when the dispute arose between the Muslims about

the Caliphate of Ali. They were killed by Ali ibn Abi Talib and those with him. Thus, this

sahih hadith proves clearly that Ali ibn Abi Talib was closer to the truth than Mu'awiya and

those with him. How, then could the supposed abdaal be in the lesser of the two camps

and not in the better of them?

Also among the lies attributed to the Prophet are what some attribute to the Prophet that

when he heard a poet read:

"The serpent of lusts has bit my liver

So there is no doctor for it, nor any healer

Except for the beloved with whom it is infatuated

With him is my cure and my healing incantation"

that the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) was overtaken with feelings until his cloak

fell from his shoulders. This story is a lie in the unanimous opinion of the scholars of

hadith. An even worse lie than this is the version narrated by some which says that he tore

up his cloak when he heard the poem, and that Jibreel took a piece of the torn cloak, and

hung it on the 'arsh (throne) of Allah. These and other nonsense like them are of that

which the people of knowledge and background in the study of the Prophet recognize as

the most blatant lies against the Prophet.

Of the same type is that which has been attributed to Umar (May Allah be pleased with

him) that he said: "The Prophet and Abu Bakr would be talking, and I would be between

them like a foreigner." This is a lie and a fabrication in the unanimous opinion of the

scholars of hadith.

The point here is: that there are among those who accept the message of Muhammad

generally externally, some who hold beliefs internally which invalidate their apparent

acceptance of Islam, and as such are hypocrites. Such claim for themselves and for others

like them that they are the allies (awliyaa') of Allah in spite of their hidden, internal kuf or

rejection of that which the Prophet brought to us - either out of rebelliousness or

ignorance, just as many of the Jews and Christians believe that they are the allies of Allah.

They may also believe that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah, but they say: "He was sent

to other than the Jews and the Christians, and it is not obligatory upon us to follow him

because we have already been sent prophets before him. All of these are disbelievers

(kuffar), even though they believe that their group are allies of Allah. The allies of Allah are

only those who Allah has described as possessing His wilaya:

“Verily the allies of Allah will have no fear upon them, nor shall they grieve -

those who believe and have taqwa of Allah.” Qur'an 10:62-63

Belief (imaan) of necessity entails belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His Prophets, and

the Last Day. The believer believes in every prophet whom Allah has sent, every book

which Allah has revealed, as Allah said:

“Say: We believe in Allah and in that which has been sent to us and in that

which was sent to Ibrahim and Isma'il and Is-haq and Ya'qub and the Tribes,

and that which was given to Musa and 'Isa and that which was given to the

prophets from their Lord. We do not differentiate between any of them, and

we submit to Allah. And so, if they believe in that in which you believe, they

have achieved guidance, but if they turn away, they are surely in rebellion.

Allah will suffice you against them, and He is the all-hearing, the allknowing.”

Qur'an 2:136-137

“The Prophet has believed in that which was sent to him from his Lord as

have the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His books, and His

messengers. We do not differentiate between any one of His messengers, and

they say: "We hear, and we obey. Your forgiveness, our Lord, to You is the

end of all things. * Allah does not emburden any soul except with that which

is within his ability. To it is (the good of) what it earned, and upon it is (the

bad of) what it earned. Our Lord, do not hold us responsible if we forget, or

make a mistake. Our Lord, and do not put on us burdens as were placed on

those who came before us. Our Lord, and do not put on us that which we

have no power over. And over look for us (our sins), and forgive us, and have

mercy on us, You are our Guardian and Protector, so give us victory over the

people who reject faith.” Qur'an 2:285-286

“A.L.M. * This is the book in which there is no doubt, a guidance for those

who are pious. * Those who believe in the unseen, establish the prayer, and

spend out of what we have provided for them. * Those who believe in that

which was sent down to you and that which was sent down to those before

you, and have certainty of faith in the existence of the hereafter. * Such are

on true guidance from their Lord, and such are the successful.” Qur'an 2:1-5

Thus, a necessary component of faith (imaan) is to believe that Muhammad (sallallahu

`alayhi wa sallam) is the seal of the prophets, that there is no prophet after him, and that

Allah sent him to all of the two possessors of free will: humans and jinns. Anyone who has

not believed in that which he brought is not a believer, much less a pious ally of (waliy) of

Allah. Whoever believes in part of what he brought and rejects part is a kafir (disbeliever),

and is not a believer. Allah said:

“Those who disbelieve in Allah and His prophets and seek to differentiate

between Allah and His prophets, and they say: "We believe in some and we

reject some" and they seek to strike a path between that. Such are the true

disbelievers, and we have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating

punishment. As for those who believed in Allah and his prophets, and sought

not to differentiate between any of them, these Allah will give their reward,

and Allah is forgiving, merciful.” Qur'an 4:150-152

Faith also includes: belief that the Prophet is the intermediary between Allah and His

creation for the purpose of delivering His orders and forbiddances, His promises and

threats, and the definition of the halal (allowed) and the haram (forbidden). The halal is

that which Allah and His Prophet have declared halal, and the haram is that which Allah

and His Prophet have made haram. The deen (way) is that which Allah and His Prophet

have ordained. Thus, whoever believes that any waliy has a way to Allah without following

Muhammad (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) is a kafir, and is an ally of the devil (shaitaan).

As for Allah's creating of the creation, and his providing them with sustenance, and His

answering their supplications, His guiding of their hearts, His aiding them over their

enemies, and all other types of bringing about benefit, or driving away harm: all of this is

from Allah alone. He does these things, and links them to whatever (observable) causes

He wishes. The intermediation of Prophets does not enter into these matters.

Moreover, whatever level a person reaches in terms of asceticism, devotion, and

knowledge, but without believing in the entire message brought by Muhammad (sallallahu

`alayhi wa sallam) can never make him a believer, nor an ally of Allah, as, for example the

monks and ascetics among the scholars and worshippers of the Jews and the Christians.

Also, those seeming to have knowledge and devotion among the associationists of Arabia,

Turkey, or India, or others among the "sages" of India or Turkey who possess some

knowledge, discipline and devotion in their religion, but are not believers in all of the

message of Muhammad (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), are all kafir (disbelievers) and

enemies of Allah. This, even though many may believe them to be allies (awliyaa') of Allah.

Thus, the sages of the Persian Zoroastrians are all kafir, as well as the sages of Greece

such as Aristotle and those like him. They were associationists, worshipping idols and the

planets. Aristotle was before 'Isa (Jesus) by three hundred years, and was a minister for

Alexander son of Phillips the Macedonian, who is mentioned in the histories of Rome and

Greece, as well as the histories of the Christians and the Jews. He is not, however, the

same as the man named Dhu-l-Qarnain who Allah mentioned in His book, as some

imagined. Some people mistakenly thought that Aristotle was a minister for dhu-l-qarnain,

when they saw that (the one found in the Western histories) was named Alexander, and

the names are similar, they thought that they were one in the same man. This mistaken

view has been promulgated by Ibn Seena and some others with him.

This is not the case. Rather, the associationist Alexander - for whom Aristotle was a

minister lived much later than the man mentioned in the Qur'an. He never built the wall,

and did not travel to the land of Juj and Ma'juj, and the history of the Alexander for which

Aristotle served as minister has been recorded in the well-known histories of Rome.

Among the various types of associationists, those of the Arabs, India, Turkey, and Greece,

and others are individuals who exert themselves very much in seeking knowledge,

disciplining themselves and in devotions, but they do not follow the prophets, nor do they

believe in the messages brought by the prophets, neither believing them in the information

which they passed on from Allah ta'ala, nor obeying them in the orders they transmitted.

Such people are not believers, and not allies of Allah. The devils (shayateen) attach

themselves to such people, and come to them so that they amaze people with some

mysterious acts. They, with the help of their shayateen can perform miraculous feats which

is actually sorcery. They are nothing more than a type of sorcerer or fortune-teller upon

which the shayateen descend, as Allah said:

“Should I tell you upon whom the shayateen descend? They descend upon

every forging sinner. They cast to them the hearing (which they "snatched"

from the heavenly assembly), and most of them are liars.” Qur'an 26:221-

223

All of these are associated with revealing of secrets and miraculous feats, but are not

followers of the prophets. They will always, of necessity lie, and their helpers among the

shayateen will also lie to them. Also, there must appear in their actions something which is

sinful and corrupt. It may be some form of associationism, oppression, obscenity, or

excess or innovation in worship.

Because of these transgressions, the shayateen which have attached themselves to them

come to them, so they have become the allies of the devil, and are not of the allies of

Allah. Allah said:

“Whoever turns away from the reminder of the Merciful, we will assign to him

a devil, who will be a partner to him.” Qur'an 43:36

The "reminder of the Merciful" is the reminder with which He sent His Messenger (sallallahu

`alayhi wa sallam) such as the Qur'an. So, whoever does not believe in the Qur'an, in all

the information contained therein, and does not believe in the obligatoriness of the orders

contained therein, has turned away from it, and so is assigned a shaitaan who attaches

himself to him.

Allah said:

“This is a blessed reminder which we have sent down” Qur'an 43:36

“And whoever turns away from my reminder will have an oppressive,

restricted life, and we will resurrect him on the day of Qiyama blind. He said:

"Lord, why have you resurrected me blind, while I used to see?" He said:

"Just as my verses came to you and you forgot them, today you are

forgotten."“ Qur'an 20:124-126

This verse shows clearly that "my reminder" (dhikriy) here is the same thing as "my

verses" (aayaatiy) which Allah sent down. Thus, even if someone mentioned Allah (which is

also called dhikr in Arabic) constantly, day and night, with the utmost of self discipline, and

exerted himself in constant acts of worship and devotion, but, at the same time, was not a

follower of Allah's dhikr (Qur'an) which He sent down to His Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa

sallam), he would be one of the allies of the shaitaan, even if he were to fly through the

air, or walk on water. The shaitaan is perfectly capable of carrying him through the air, or

over the water. This has been explained more fully elsewhere.

                                 



There are some people who have some faith (imaan), and along with it some components

of hypocrisy (nifaaq), as has come in the sahih hadith on the authority of Abdullah ibn

Umar that the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

"Anyone in whom are found four things is a pure hypocrite, and if they have

some degree of these things, they have that degree of hypocrisy until they

change their ways: When they speak they lie, when they promise they break

their promise, when they are given a trust they betray it, and when they

engage in a truce they are treacherous."

And in the two books of Muslim and Bukhari on the authority of Abu Huraira that the

Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

"Faith (imaan) is some seventy-odd components. The greatest of them is the

pronouncement: There is no deity other than Allah, the least of them is

removing something harmful from the road, and modesty is a component of

faith."

From these hadith, we understand that anyone in whom are found some of these

components has some degree of hypocrisy until he changes his ways.

Also in the two books of sahih, that the Prophet said to Abu Dharr, one of the best of the

believers:

"You are a man in whom there is jahiliya (pre-Islamic foolishness). Abu Dharr

asked: "At my age, O messenger of Allah?" The Prophet said: "Yes".

Also in a sahih hadith, the Prophet said:

"Four things are found in my nation from the affairs of the jahiliya (pre-

Islamic ignorance): pride in social status or class, casting doubt on peoples

family origin, weeping and wailing over the dead, and praying for water using

the stars."

"The signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks he lies, when he

promises he breaks his promise, and when he is trusted he betrays your

trust." In one version of this hadith, the Prophet added: "...even if he fasts

and prays and thinks that he is a Muslim."

Imam Bukhari mentioned on the authority of Ibn Abi Maleeka that he said:

"I met thirty of the companions of Muhammad (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam),

every one of them fears for himself from hypocrisy."

Allah said:

“That which afflicted you on the day when the two armies met was by the

permission of Allah, and that He would know the believers, and that he would

know those who were hypocritical. It was said to them: "Fight in the path of

Allah, or defend." They said: "If only we knew how to fight, we would follow

you." They, on that day were closer to kufr than to imaan.” Qur'an 3:166-167

Allah has described the band of hypocrites on that day as being closer to disbelief than to

belief. It is clear that they combine some qualities of belief and some of disbelief, and that

their disbelief is stronger than their degree of belief. Others mix kufr and imaan, but the

imaan is stronger than the kufr.

Since the allies of Allah are the pious (i.e. having taqwa) believers (Qur'an 10:62-64), it is

clear that the degree of ones closeness to Allah (wilaya) is according to the degree of his

faith (imaan) and his piety (taqwa). Thus, whoever is greater in faith and in piety, is

greater in closeness of his relationship to Allah. So, people are of different degrees of

closeness to Allah, in accordance to the difference in degree of their imaan and their

taqwa. (Note: We are translating the word taqwa as piety for lack of a better word. Taqwa

denotes both the mental state of piety, and the outward actions which may protect one

from Allah's punishment, make one deserving of His mercy i.e. obedience.) In the same

way, people differ in their degree of enmity to Allah ('adaawa) in accordance to their

different degrees of disbelief (kufr) and hypocrisy (nifaaq). Allah said:

“And whenever another sura is sent down, some of them say: "Which of you

has been increased in faith by this?" As for those who believe, it has

increased them in faith, and they they look forward to good. But those in

whose hearts is sickness, have only been increased by it more disease on top

of their disease until they die in a state of disbelief.” Qur'an 9:124-125

“Verily An-nasee' (exchanging another month for one of the sacred months

when one wishes to fight wars in the four months in which they are

prohibited) is an increase in disbelief.” Qur'an 9:37

“And Allah increased those who became guided in guidance, and granted

them the characteristic of taqwa.”

 

“In their hearts (i.e. the hypocrites) is a disease, and Allah increased them in

disease.” Qur'an 2:10

In these verses, Allah explains clearly that a single individual may contain a portion of

closeness (wilaya) to Allah in accordance with his degree of faith, and, at the same time, a

portion of enmity ('adaawa) to Allah in accordance with his degree of disbelief and

hypocrisy. Allah said:

“And those who believe increase in belief.” Qur'an 74:31

“...that they may increase in faith in addition to their faith.” Qur'an 48:4

 


 

The allies of Allah are of two levels: forerunners, those brought near, and those of the right

hand who acted in moderation. Allah has mentioned them in a number of places in His

sacred Book such as in the beginning of sura number 56, and again at the end of the same

sura, and in suras 76, 83, and 35. In the beginning of the sura called Al-waaqi'a (56) Allah

mentioned the Greater Qiyama, and at the end of it, He mentioned the Lesser Qiyama. In

the beginning of this sura, He said:

“When the inevitable event comes to pass * There will be no one to deny its

reality. * Bringing (some) low, raising (others) high, * When the earth will be

shaken to its depths, * And the mountains will be crushed and split, * Until

they become mere floating, scattered dust. * And you become three

categories * Those of the right hand, and what are those of the right hand? *

And those of the left hand, and what are those of the left hand? * And the

forerunners, the forerunners * They are the ones brought near, * In gardens

of bliss * Many from the early generations, * And a few from the later

generations.” Qur'an 56:1-14

This is the division of people at the time of the Greater Qiyama in which Allah will collect

together all the people of the early and the later generations, as Allah as described in

many places in His book. Then, Allah said at the end of the same sura:

“So why, then, when it (i.e. the soul of a dying person) reaches the throat * And

you, at that time are looking on, * And we are closer to him than you, but you do

not see * So why, if you truly are not to be held to account * Do you not call it back

(i.e. stop death), if you speak the truth? * Then, if he is one of those brought near,

* Then rest and complete satisfaction, and a garden of bliss. * And if he is one of

those of the right hand * Then "Peace unto you" from those of the right hand * And

if he is one of the deniers, those who are lost * For him is a resting place of boiling

water * And the basking in a ferocious fire * Verily, this is the certain truth * So

glorify the name of your Lord, the Great.” Qur'an 56:83-96

Allah said in sura number 76:

“We surely have shown him (i.e. man) the way whether (he chooses to be)

grateful or ungrateful, rejecting. * Verily, we have prepared for the rejectors

chains and bonds and roaring fire. * The righteous drink from a cup whose

mixer is kaafuur. * (There is) a spring from which drink the slaves of Allah,

they cause it to spring forth at will. * They (used to) fulfill their oaths and fear

a day whose evil is widespread. * They (used to) feed others (their) food in

spite of their love for it: poor people, orphans, and prisoners. * (They say)

We only feed you for the pleasure of Allah, we want no reward from you nor

thanks. * Verily we fear from our Lord a day long, and difficult. * So Allah

protected them from the evil of that day, and will give to them a beautiful

light, and joy. * And He will reward them for their patience a garden and

silk.” Qur'an 76:3-12

“No! Surely the destiny of the wicked is to an oppressive prison. * And what

can make you understand the reality of that prison? * A destiny which has

already been set. * Woe, on that day, to the deniers * Those who deny the

(existence of the) Day of Judgement. * None deny that except for every

transgressor and sinner. * When our verses are read to him, he says: "Stories

of the ancients!" * It is not so! Rather, the sins which they used to commit

have coated their hearts (preventing them from understanding) * On that day

they will be blocked from the seeing of their Lord * Then, they will enter the

Hell fire. * Then it will be said to them: "This is the reality which you used to

deny!" * No! Surely the destiny of the righteous is to a wide and spacious

place * And what can make you understand the reality of that wide and

spacious place? * A destiny which has already been set. * The righteous will

be in bliss * On comfortable seats, looking (i.e. at Allah) * One can recognize

in their faces the brightness of bliss. * They are given to drink from sealed

bottles of wine. * Drinking it leaves the smell of finest musk. For this should

be the competition of those who compete. * It (the wine) is a mixture of

tasneem (the finest drink of the people of paradise). * A spring with which

drink those brought near.” Qur'an 83:7-28

On the authority of Ibn Abbas, and this is the statement of others of the early generations:

A mixture is prepared (i.e. from the spring of tasneem) for those of the right hand, while

those brought near are allowed to drink directly from the spring as they wish. It is as they

said (the language also supports this interpretation). Because Allah said: "They drink with

it" (yashrabu bihaa), and did not day "They drink from it" (yashrabu minhaa). This is

because the word for drink in this way includes the concept of quenching of thirst. One

may drink, but not necessarily completely quench his thirst. Thus, when it is said: "They

drink from it", it does not denote quenching of thirst, but when it is said: "They drink with

it", the meaning becomes that they fully quench their thirst and eliminate their need for

drink. So those brought near totally quench their thirst with pure tasneem from the spring,

and are not in need of anything else of lesser degree along with it. This is in contrast to

those of the right hand for whom a mixture is prepared. This is just as Allah said also in

another verse:

“Its mixer is kaafuur, a spring from which the slaves of Allah drink, they

cause it to spring forth at will.” Qur'an 76:5-6

The "slaves of Allah" in this verse are the same as the ones referred to as "those brought

near" elsewhere. This is because rewards are of similar nature to actions, both in good and

in bad, as the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

"Whoever relieves a believer of a hardship of this life, Allah will relieve him of

a hardship of the day of Qiyama. Whoever gives relief to someone in difficult

(financial) straits, Allah will make it easy for him in this life and in the

hereafter. Whoever conceals the fault of a Muslim, Allah will conceal for him

his faults in this life and in the hereafter. And Allah is (engaged) in the aid of

His slave as long as the slave is engaged in the aid of his brother. And

whoever travels a road searching for knowledge, Allah will make his road to

paradise easy for him. And whenever a group of people come together in one

of the Houses of Allah, reciting the Qur'an and teaching it to one another,

peace will descend on them, mercy will cover them, the angels will

congregate in large numbers over them, and Allah will mention them to those

around Him. And whoever is slow in application, Allah will not be fast in

assigning its reward." (Muslim)

"The Merciful has mercy on those who are merciful. Be merciful with those on

earth, so that He who is in the heavens may have mercy on you." (At-

Tirmidhi said: A good, sound hadith)

"Allah says: I am the Merciful (Ar-Rahman), I created the womb (Ar-Rahm),

and I derived its name from my name. So, whoever maintains its relations, I

will maintain my relation with them, and whoever cuts off its relations, I will

cut them off."

Examples of this type are many in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.``

The allies of Allah are of two types, as we have said: those brought near, and those of the

right hand. The Prophet mentioned the actions of the two groups in the hadith of the

awliyaa' (allies) saying:

"Allah ta'ala says: I have declared war on anyone who is an enemy of any of my allies.

There is nothing better with which my slave can come closer to me than fulfilling all that I

have made obligatory upon him. Then, my slave will continue to come closer to me be

making extra efforts until I love him. When I love him, I am his hearing with which he

hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes, and his leg with which

he walks. If he asks me, I will give him, if he seeks refuge with me, I will give him refuge.

I have not hesitated in anything which I do as I hesitate in taking the soul of my believing

slave. He dislikes death, and I dislike annoying him, but he must meet his death."

The righteous, those of the right hand are those who seek to come close to Allah with all

that is obligatory: they do that which Allah has ordered them to do, and avoid that which

Allah has forbidden them, and do not demand of themselves the doing of the commendable

but less than obligatory (i.e. the man d o ob ), or the avoiding of some of the

disrecommended of the allowed (i.e. the makrooh).

As for the forerunners, those brought near, they sought to come close to Allah with extra

efforts after the obligatory. They did the obligatory and the commendable, and avoided the

forbidden and the disrecommended. When they sought to come close to Him with

everything within their ability of that which they love, Allah's love for them became

complete, as He said (as reported by the Prophet):

"Then, my slave will continue to come closer to me by making extra efforts

until I love him."

He means unqualified love, as in Allah's statement:

“Guide us to the straight path, the path of those upon whom You have

bestowed Your grace, not the path of those with whom You are angry, nor of

those who have gone astray.” Qur'an 1:5-7

i.e. upon whom You have bestowed Your grace - Your complete and unqualified grace

which has been mentioned in another aya:

“And whoever obeys Allah and His Prophet are among those upon whom Allah

has bestowed His grace: the prophets and the ever-truthful, ever-believing,

and the martyrs, and the righteous doers of good, and what good companions

these are.” Qur'an 4:69

For those brought near, ordinary allowed actions (i.e. which are neither obligatory nor

forbidden) become acts of obedience to Allah with which they come closer to Allah. Thus all

of their actions are worship of Allah, and so they drink from the spring straight and pure,

just as their actions were purely for Allah ta'ala. On the other hand, those who were

moderate their efforts, had in their actions things that, though not forbidden, were done

for their selves and in their own interest. They are neither punished nor rewarded for such

actions, and they do not drink directly from the spring. Rather, a mixture is prepared for

them from the drink of those brought near (mixed with lesser ingredients) according to the

way they mixed their actions in this life.

Analogous to this is the division of the prophets into slave messengers and prophet kings.

Allah gave Muhammad (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) the choice between being a slave and

a messenger or being a prophet and a king, and he chose the former. Prophet kings are

like the Prophet Dawood, Sulaiman, and others (prayers and peace of Allah be upon them).

Allah said, informing us of the statement of Sulaiman:

“My Lord, forgive me and give me a dominion which will not be allowed to

anyone after me, verily You are the Giver. * And so we brought the wind

under his control - it goes under his command, gently, wherever he wishes. *

And also the shayateen, including every builder and diver * And others bound

up in shackles. * This is our grant, so give or withhold, no account will be

asked.” Qur'an 38:35-39

i.e. give to whomever you wish, and deny whomever you wish, there is no account-taking

upon you. Thus, the prophet king does what Allah orders him, avoids what Allah has

forbidden, and acts freely in whatever worldly power or property he has been granted in

whatever way he chooses and likes, without any sin upon him.

As for the slave messenger, he gives to no one without the order of his Lord, he cannot

give whom he wishes nor can he withhold from whom he wishes. He gives to whom Allah

has ordered him to give, and assigns responsibilities and powers to those whom Allah has

ordered him to assign. Thus all of his actions are acts of worship to Allah ta'ala, as the

Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) himself said in the hadith found in Sahih Bukhari:

"Verily, by Allah, I give no one, and I withhold from no one. I am only a

divider, I place wherever I am ordered."

For this reason, Allah has described the public properties in Islam as belonging to Allah and

His Prophet, as in His statement:

“Say: The spoils are Allah's and His Prophet's.” Qur'an 8:1

“That which Allah has caused to come back to His Prophet from the people of

the villages is Allah's and His Prophet's.” Qur'an 59:7

“And know that one fifth of that (property) which you have captured belongs

to Allah and to the Prophet” Qur'an 8:41

Thus, the clearest of the opinions of the scholars is that these properties are to be spent in

any ways loved by Allah and His Prophet, according to the ijtihaad (jurisprudential effort)

of the head of the Islamic state. This is the position of Imam Malik and other early

scholars. It has been mentioned as the position of Imam Ahmad. It has also been said

about the one-fifth portion of the spoils: It is divided into five parts (i.e. according to the

five mentioned in the rest of the aya above - See Qur'an 59:7), as is the opinion of Ashshafi'i,

and the most famous opinion of Ahmad, and it has been said: it is divided into three

parts, which is the opinion of Abu Hanifa.

What is intended here is that the slave messenger is superior to the prophet king, just as

Ibrahim, Musa, 'Isa, and Muhammad, upon them be peace, are superior to Yusuf, Dawood,

and Sulaiman, upon them be peace. In the same way, the forerunners, those brought near

are superior to the righteous, those of the right hand who are not of those brought near

nor forerunners. So, whoever performs all that Allah has ordered him to perform, and does

of the allowed (halal) whatever he wishes, is of the second group, and whoever does

everything according to what Allah loves and is pleased with, and seeks the allowed only

to aid him in the performing of the obligatory, is of the first group.

Complete series of  Awliya Ur-Rahman Awliya-Ushaitan :-Shaykhul Islam Ibne Taymiyyah[rah] will be continued........ InshaAllah

Last modified onThursday, 06 August 2015 11:47
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